SQL Cheatsheet

 KEY
 ---
 Curly braces group alternatives together,
   and alternatives are separated by pipes:  {this | that | t'other}
 Clauses in brackets are optional:            You [and john] can come.
 An asterisk indicates 0 or more instances:   I like to eat[ and eat]*.
 A plus-sign indicates 1 or more instances:   Run fast,[ go]+!
 A plus-sign also indicates addition:         select (1 + 3) from dual;

 Elements are defined in terms of other elements.
   <number> : [0-9]+  means that a number is composed of one or more digits.
   <datatype>: {integer | char(<number>) | varchar2(<number>) | date}
 means that a <datatype> element is one of the four strings shown.
   <column-set>: <column> = <expression>
 means that a <column-set> element is composed of a <column>, followed by
 an equals sign and an <expression>.

 Readability of PL/SQL is much improved by highlighting certain keywords;
 this is why some word are in all caps.  Permanent link building services  ---

 INSERTS and UPDATES
 -------------------
 <insert>: insert into <tablename> [<columns>] {values <values> | <select>}
 <select>: select [distinct] <columns> from <tables> [<where>] [group-by]
 <select-union>:  <select> union <select> [<order-by>]
 <select-order>:  <select> <order-by>

 <update>    : update <tablename> set <column-set> [, <column-set>] [<where>]
 <column-set>: <column> = <expression>
 <update-from-query>: update <tablename> set <columns> = <select> [<where>]

 FUNDAMENTALS
 ------------
 <name>    : [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_]*   - that is, a string of alphanumeric chars
                                    and underscores starting with an alpha char.
 <number>  : [0-9]+
 <datatype>: {integer | char(<number>) | varchar2(<number>) | date}

 <ora-alias>: a temporary nickname for a table or column, for the purposes
              of condensing a query.

 LITERALS 
 --------
 <value>      : {<number> | <string> | <number-expr> | <string-expr>}
 <values>     : ( <value> [, <value>]* )
 <number-expr>: {<number> | <column-name>} +  [<number> | <column-name>]*
 <string-expr>: {<string> | <column-name>} || [<string> | <column-name>]*

 NAMES and DEFINITIONS
 ---------------------
 <column-name>: name of a column in a table in the current scope
 <columns>    : ( <column-name> <ora-alias> [, <column-name> <ora-alias>]* )
 <new-column> : <name> <column-def>
 <new-columns>: <new-column> [, <new-column>]*
 <column-def> : <datatype> [default <value>] [<constraint>]*

 <table-name> : name of a table in the current scope
 <tables>     : <table-name> <ora-alias> [, <table-name> <ora-alias>]*

 <constraint> : {not null | primary key | references <table-name>}

CREATION -------- <create-table-new> : create table <name> ( <new-columns> ) <create-table-from>: create table <name> as <select> <create-tablespace>: create tablespace <name> datafile '<filespec>' size 50m autoextend on default storage (pctincrease 1); <filespec> : /opt/ora8/m02/oradata/ora8/<name>01.dbf <create-user> : create user <name> identified by <db-password> default tablespace <name> temporary tablespace temp quota unlimited on <name>; <grant-user> : grant connect, resource, ctxapp to <name>; grant javasyspriv to <name>; ADDING, DROPPING, AND DELETION ------------------------------ <add-column> : alter table <table-name> add ( <new-columns> ) <drop-column>: alter table <table-name> drop column <column-name> <drop> : drop {table|view|sequence|function} <name> <delete>: delete from <table-name> [<where>] PL-SQL BASICS ------------- <var-name> : A variable passed into a function, or definied in <declarations> <argument> : <name> IN <datatype> <arguments>: <argument> [, <argument>]* <args> : <value> [, <value>]* PL-SQL ------ <create-function>: create or replace function <name> ( <arguments> ) return <datatype> AS [<declarations>] BEGIN <function-body> END; <declarations> : <name> <datatype>[:= <value>]; <function-body>: [{<statement> | <loop>};]* return {<var-name> | <value>}; <statement>: { <var-name> := {<expression> | <function>} | open cursor <cursor-name> | fetch <cursor-name> into <var-name>} | <loop> : LOOP [{<statement> | <loop>};]* exit when <condition> END LOOP; <ora-call-function>: select <name>(<args>) from dual;


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